To explore the appropriateness of the "topic relevancy" explanation we hypothesize that of H4: However, continued repetition beyond that necessary for initial learningleads to boredomor satiation, and repeated exposure ultimately produces negative affect toward the stimulus.
Overall, empirical research in this area has failed to support the notion that humor enhances communication effectiveness cf.
These data suggest that withinan advertising contextthe major"topic-relevant" elaborations include responses related to product, ad, repetition,and productcuriosity.
Intentionto try the new brand of toothpaste was measuredon three semantic differential scales likely-unlikely, probable-improbable, possibleimpossible.
Debriefing of the subjects revealed that there was very little, if any, prior awareness or familiarity with the stimulus commercials.
A final aspect of the study which may be explored further futureresearch the effects of the commercial in is on receptionenvironment immediatecognitive elaborations. Analysis of the cognitive response measures also revealed that the counter-attitudinal message evoked a greaternumber of topic-relevantthoughts and fewer neutralor irrelevant thoughts than the proattitudinal message.
The experimental surroundings where the subjects received the stimuli for the different conditions were made identical. Most introductory texts offer just that.
For the favorability measure, the interaction resulted from the humorous message being rated most favorably in the three-exposure condition while the serious message was perceived the least favorably in the three-exposure condition. The study had a balanced design with twelve subjects in each condition.
For the attitude and usage intention, the dependent measure was calculated by averaging across the two scales used to assess each variable.
Through a complex partialing procedureCacioppo and Petty show that content-relevant elaborations were responsible for the attitudinaleffects due to repetition. According to this model, the effect of repetition is determined by two opposing psychological factors: Negative Tedium factor-have been proposed to explain these effects.
First, the highest exposurelevel used in the studymay be considered excessive for a less thanone hourprogram. Thus, this study had a factorial design with all the factors completely crossed.
The differences in irrelevantthoughtsacross the threeexposurelevels were not significant, F 2. Cacioppo and Petty hypothesize that at higher levels of re-exposure, tedium or reactance motivates a recipient to attack the now-offensive message and thus results in renewed argumentation and decreasing agreement with the message.
The final cognitive response category was the irrelevantcategory, which in3The cognitive response instructionsused in this study requested the subjects to list the thoughtsthat occurredto them while viewing the commercial about the product and their reactions during the commercial to what was said about the productby the advertiser.
elaborationmodelof messagerepetition effects Theauthorsreviewthe two-factor and report a study of the model'sapplicabilityto new winforlifestats.com inverted-U betweenrepdo relationship studyfindings not supportthe hypothesized and product.
etition and attitude toward a novel commercial and product. However, the under- Effects of Television Commercial Repetition, Receiver Knowledge, and Commercial Length: A Test of the Two-Factor Model The effects of repeated exposure to an advertising message have long heen of considerable basic and prag-matic interest to marketers.
The cognitive effects of advertising repetition are examined by considering the impact of three levels of TV commercial exposure within a one-hour program. Attitudes and purchase intentions were not affected by message repetition, although cognitive responses became more negative as.
knowledge and commercial length did not moderate these processes. Effects of Television Commercial Repetition, Receiver Knowledge, and Commercial Length: A Test of the Two-Factor Model The effects of repeated exposure to an advertising message have long been of considerable basic and prag- matic interest to marketers.
Many advertisers have argued that second television commercials should be used only to reinforce effects created by longer commercials. However, this recommendation is based on studies that have several weaknesses, including use of single exposure levels, established commercials, and learning as the primary dependent variable.
The cognitive effects of advertising repetition are examined by considering the impact of three levels of TV commercial exposure within a one-hour program. Attitudes and purchase intentions were not affected by message repetition, although cognitive responses .The effects of television commercial repetition